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Use your observations effectually in projects

 

 

  • The first 2-4 weeks of your project you must observe and analyze about the different aspects of business.
  • Use your judgement how is the work culture at the client site.
  • Stakeholders generally will not be able to tell you the specific requirements, one need to be persistent in asking related questions and summarize. The best practice that helped me to be precise in collecting the requirements is, after every conversation, I sent a summary of the discussion and it helped getting more detailed requirement in written from the stakeholder.
  • Observation can happen being active (try to talk to as many stakeholders and try and understand the whole idea of the process) or passive (quietly analyzing the colleagues, project managers or any other person related to the project).
  • No, I don’t mean that you keep asking questions at an unwanted time or indulge in an uninvited discussion, please use your best judgement so people are willing to talk to you and provide information without hesitation.
  • The information you are trying to collect, needs to be analyzed first, before you reach out to your colleagues.
  • Have your goals in order to accomplish the task on time. Time your day accordingly.
  • Make yourself available for discussions with a pleasant smile on your face. A good team player is what every organization is looking for as it makes the environment easy for everyone to work in.

 

 

 

 

 

I would appreciate your comments on the blogs that I am writing here, your input would definitely.

Let’s make this forum a LEARNING FORUM for everyone. Thank you!

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More Trends in Business Analysis in 2015

 

2015 has kicked off and most of us are already fully entangled in the daily grind. Unlike people, projects show no sign of a ‘getting back into the swing of things’ period. The pressure keeps building as organizations are pushed to keep up with industry in order to stay competitive and profitable. So what does 2015 have in store for us? My view is that the following 4 trends can be expected to be prevalent for Business Analysts during the year.

THERE WILL BE A SHIFT IN INNOVATION

2013/2014 saw a strong focus on external client facing innovation from companies around the world. We saw trends in the mobile and digital space with the rise in the mobility of the products and services offered. Digital began to bridge the divide between companies, the products they sell and ultimately the consumers of those products. This brings me to the first trend that I foresee, 2015 will see a consolidation period where internal innovation plays catch-up to the external. Consolidation after a period of rapid growth is common in most business areas and is no different for Business Analysis.

Projects focused on improving the back end systems as well as process improvements enabling us to deliver our products better to our customers will be front and center in 2015. This will have two impacts on Business Analysis, the types of projects we work on and the way we work on those projects.

The first impact speaks to the nature of the projects being more back end focused with a big push on integration between back end services that was not seen as critical during initial development. As projects move from a project space to a business as usual space these inefficiencies in maintaining and operating the new functionality or capability become apparent.

The second impact affects how we conduct the Business Analysis activities within an organization. This can, in an organizational level, mean that training would become more prevalent as businesses realize the need for improved skills. It could also mean organizations taking a step back and looking at the methodologies and controls in place for analysis to take place. Refining methodologies and building systems to increase efficiency will be something we see happening during 2015.

COMPLIANCE AND REGULATORY RELATED PROJECTS WILL INCREASE

The plethora of new legislation around the world will have a large impact on organizations. The costs involved in compliance pose a massive risk to revenue generation, it often means that products that were once extremely profitable now become less so. So what does this mean for Business Analysis? We will start to see Business Analysis professionals emerge as specialists in compliance and regulation analysis. Typically this will be due to the complex nature of regulatory based projects as well as the nuances in the analysis approach.

There is a massive gap in the translation layer currently where an Act or piece of legislation is worded in such a way that it is open ended and not specific to the business. In Business Analysis we seek specificity, so how do we get there when words such as ‘reasonable’ are commonplace in legislation? An added complication is the legal wording which often creates confusion within the business as to what it actually is that must change as a result of the new legislation. The skills required to facilitate the gathering of requirements from a source other than the individual or group that created the legislation are very different from standard Business Analysis skills.

A traditional BA approach is to look at the requirements needed to provide a certain capability and look at the value this can add to an organization. A regulatory project is automatically given a high level of priority above other projects and is often hard to justify as the value gained seems minimal. In reality the value gained is in the ability of the organization to avoid severe penalties or repercussions. This presents a specific issue to an organization and an opportunity for a Business Analyst to add value.

Regulations are not optional and as such a Business Analyst can be pivotal in the implementation of these regulations by providing approaches that reduce the impact on the business and customers of that business. The smaller the impact that the legislation has on business the better for the business.

Another core effect this will have on Business Analysis is the ongoing non-functional requirements for future projects. Compliance to a specific legislation once-off is not enough, all future functionality needs to take into account the pre-existing regulatory constraints. Where compliance is seen as a hindrance to business this can be seen as an area where Business Analysis can thrive and indirectly add business value.

THE CONCEPT OF THE BUSINESS ANALYST AS AN ENTREPRENEUR WILL EMERGE

Pulling from articles from thought leaders such as Richard Larson, CEO of Watermark learning, as well as others in the field, the emergence of the concept that the Business Analysts is an internal entrepreneur and strategist will start to emerge. Although I don’t expect this concept to be fully realized during 2015 I think that the way business views a Business Analyst will start to move towards that. But what does this really mean?

Essentially a Business Analyst is there to add real measurable business value as well as to be an agent of change within an organization. This is the same thing that an entrepreneur is trying to achieve. They seek to find a gap in the market where they are able to create a product or service that ultimately adds some type of value to their customer’s lives.

If you look at this view it is evident that a Business Analyst might need to have a better understanding of the business as a whole as well as the components that ensure that solutions result in added value. Building a good solution is no longer the full extent of adding this value; communication, marketing, organizational development as well as change management all become critical to the success of a solution.

Multidisciplinary team members that have a good understanding of the holistic nature of projects will be in high demand. Multidisciplinary can be a misleading concept and the age old saying ‘jack of all trades master of none’ comes to mind. But this is not the case. While the Business Analyst might not deliver on the marketing of a solution for example it will become a business requirement as it is a critical success factor. Having exposure and understanding of those elements will elevate the traditional Business Analyst from a document producer to someone who is able to bring about positive change and ultimately add business value.

If we as Business Analysts are viewed as the go-to people for value creation it paints a good picture of the future where the role becomes indispensable to any business. I am not saying we will get there in 2015 but the emergence of the concept will get people thinking and we might even see early adopters driving the concept forward.

THE AGILE VS WATERFALL DEBATE WILL DIE A LONG AWAITED DEATH

Long have we heard the debate over Agile and Waterfall, in fact this is becoming overly commonplace at events and online LinkedIn forums. My view is that this will die down specifically in the intermediate to senior Business Analysis space. Agile is no longer the catch phrase it was a few years back, agile practitioners are no longer revolutionaries trying to convince business that there is a better way. In many instances Agile is a way of life and a business as usual practice.

The buzz word has died down and companies know that agility is something they need to achieve in order to be competitive and bring products and product enhancements to market at the required speed. Hybrid approaches to achieving agility are becoming increasingly prevalent in previously waterfall driven environments. Core concepts that drive agility such as visibility, incremental release cycles, collaboration, user centricity and change driven behavior are being incorporated where highly governed and regulated industries exist.

As we progress through the year the key principles within agile will take front and center over the methodologies such as scrum, XP and Kanban. This will enable Business Analysts to achieve a level of agility beyond the restrictions of the governance that they work in. Questions as to the relevance of over documented requirements will be raised. Business will be asking what value can be derived from long over complicated documents. Essentially agility will result in small incremental changes being made to a waterfall environment until we look back and realize that great distance has been added between where we are and where we used to be.

As the pressures of business continue to push effectiveness in project delivery we will see a shift in the understanding that in order to deliver we need to focus on the deliverable and not on the elements of governance that form part of a traditional Waterfall SDLC. We won’t ever do away with documentation, but the 200 page specifications of the past will start to become smaller and more specific to what we need in order to deliver an end solution. A quote by Einstein “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler” holds the key to the above concept. Although it will take some time to realize the boundary between what the right amounts of detail is and what is too much, we are far beyond the view that we need long documents to ensure delivery. Value has and will continue to be the driver in effective business change, we are just getting better at realizing where the true value lies even if that is one small step at a time.

In conclusion, whatever happens in 2015 it is very evident that it is a very exciting time for Business Analysis. There will be challenges and changes but that presents an opportunity to push the profession to a new level.

P.S. Source: http://www.modernanalyst.com/Resources/Articles/tabid/115/ID/3210/More-Trends-in-Business-Analysis-in-2015.aspx
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Essential Skills for a Business Analyst

A Business Analyst is a professional with the domain knowledge of the client's business. With the capabilities as below:

 

- Appropriate degree in Business Administration.

- Good communication skills

- Good listener

- Able to hold meetings & bringing out conclusions

- Able to analyze the attributes of different people

- Data collecting skills

- Must be liaison between business and IT

- Analytical and problem solving skills

- Ability to understand and document the business processes.

 



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Campus Drive in Dhaanish Ahmed College Of Engineering

Hi its our immense pleasure to inform every one that, our RadusTek recruitment banner has been published in daily news paper in India...

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SQL Developers - SQL Joins

This diagram tells about SQL Joins ........in Simple Understanding way with Examples...

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SQL Developers Questionnaries

 

 

Question:- What is your approach on designing a Database?

 

Answer:- First approach using life cycle and then ERD and create a prototype of your application and test the model.

 

Question:- What are the advantages and disadvantages of Normalization?

 

Answer:-Advantages: reduce the redundancy, conceptually cleaner, avoid null values and increase storage efficiency.

 

Disadvantages: complex query can put database down. Also too many joins required to produce reports.

 

Question:- When will you go for Normalization or De-normalization?

 

Answer:- It depends upon the condition at what level data base should be normalization and de-normalization.

 

Question:- Define third normal form and give an example of placing a model in third normal form.

 

Answer:- Define: No duplicate information is permitted. So, for example, if two tables both require a birthdate field, the birthdate information would be separated into a separate table, and the two other tables would then access the birthdate information via an index field in the birthdate table. Any change to a birthdate would automatically be reflecting in all tables that link to the birthdate table.

 

Question:- What are constraints in SQL Server?

 

Answer:- Unique key constrain, Primary key constrain, check constrain, foreign key constrain, not null constrain, default constrain.

 

Question:- What is SQL Profiler?

 

Answer:- SQL Server Profiler is a rich interface to create and manage traces and analyze and replay trace results. The events are saved in a trace file that can later be analyzed or used to replay a specific series of steps when trying to diagnose a problem. Creating trace, Watching trace, Storing trace, Replaying trace.

 

Question:- What is an execution plan?

 

Answer:- Execution plans can tell you how a query will be executed, or how a query was executed. They are, therefore, the DBA's primary means of troubleshooting a poorly performing query. Rather than guess at why a given query is performing thousands of scans, putting your I/O through the roof, you can use the execution plan to identify the exact piece of SQL code that is causing the problem. For example, it may be scanning an entire table-worth of data when, with the proper index, it could simply backpack out only the rows you need. All this and more is displayed in the execution plan.

 

Question:- What is use of EXCEPT clause? How it differs from NOT IN clause

 

Answer:- EXCEPT clause is used to return records that are returned by the first query and NOT the second query. The number of fields and data types of both the queries should be the same. NOT In clause Consider this code that returns all the customers who don't have an order in the Orders table.

 

Question:- Explain the difference between RECOMPILE query hint and WITH RECOMPILE option.

 

Answer:- RECOMPILE query hint can be added to a stored procedure as query hint. This allows only that query in the stored procedure to recompile. WITH RECOMPILE option recompiles the whole stored procedure which might not be needed if the stored procedure has many queries and only some of them need to be recompiled.

 

Question:- What the difference is between and when to choose what: char, varchar, nvarchar, text, varchar (max)?

 

Answer:- nchar and nvarchar can store Unicode character.char and varchar cannot store Unicode characters. char and nchar are fixed-length which will reserve storage space for number of characters you specify even if you don't use up all that space. varchar and nvarchar are variable-length which will only use up spaces for the characters you store. It will not reserve storage like char or nchar.

 

Question:- What are “Table Scan’s” and “Index Scan’s”?

 

Answer:- A table scan is where the table is processed row by row from beginning to end. An index scan is where the index is processed row by row from beginning to end. If the index is a clustered index then an index scan is really a table scan.

 

Question:- What are indexes? What are types of indexes?

 

Answer:- : Index is a method used for faster retrieval of records different types of indexes are

1.primary key index

2.unique index

3.bitmap index

4.hash index

5.function based index

6. B-tree index on table.

7.Virtual index

 

Question:-What is nested join, hash join and merge join in SQL Query plan?

 

Answer:- In nested joins, for each tuple in the outer join relation, the system scans the entire inner-join relation and appends any tuples that match the join-condition to the result set.

Merge join: Merge join If both join relations come in order, sorted by the join attribute(s), the system can perform the join trivially, thus: It can consider the current group of tuples from the inner relation which consists of a set of contiguous tuples in the inner relation with the same value in the join attribute.

Hash join: A hash join algorithm can only produce equial-joins. The database system pre-forms access to the tables concerned by building hash tables on the join-attributes.

Question:- How do you see the SQL plan in textual format?

 

Answer:- SET SHOWPLAN_TEXT ON

To quickly analyze a slow-running query, examine the query execution plan to determine what is causing the problem.

SET SHOWPLAN_TEXT causes SQL Server to return detailed information about how the statements are executed.

 

Question:-Is it a good database design to create indexes on the table in which lot of inserts occurs?

 

Answer:- Indexes are created on columns in tables or views. The index provides a fast way to look up data based on the values within those columns. Without the index, a table scan would have to be performed in order to locate the row, which can have a significant effect on performance. Instead, I will focus on those indexes that are implemented most commonly in a SQL Server database.

 

Question:- What is “Fill Factor” concept in indexes? What is the best value for “FillFactor”?

 

Answer:- : Fill factor is the value that determines the percentage of space on each leaf-level page to be filled with data. In an SQL Server, the smallest unit is a page, which is made of Page with size 8K. Every page can store one or more rows based on the size of the row. The default value of the Fill Factor is 100, which is same as value 0. The default Fill Factor (100 or 0) will allow the SQL Server to fill the leaf-level pages of an index with the maximum numbers of the rows it can fit. There will be no or very little empty space left in the page, when the fill factor is 100.

 

Question:- Define “Index statistics”.

 

Answer:- : Index statistics contain information about the distribution of index key values. By distribution, I mean the number of rows associated with each key value. SQL Server uses this information to determine what kind of execution plan to use when processing a query. As you insert, update, or delete rows in a table, the statistics on the updated table become out of date. They become out of date because SQL Server doesn't update the statistics every time you change a row in a table.

 

Question:- How can we see statistics of an index?

 

Answer:- Once statistics have been created, SQL Server then determines when to update those statistics based on how out-of-date the statistics might be. SQL Server identifies out of date statistics based on the number of inserts, updates, and deletes that have occurred since the last time statistics were updated, and then recreates the statistics based on a threshold. The threshold is relative to the number of records in the table. This means as you add and update records in a database table the index statistics slowly get out of date, until SQL Server determines you have added and/or updated enough records and then it recreates the statistics.

 

Question:- Define Fragmentation. How can we measure Fragmentation?

 

Answer:- Fragmentation can be defined as any condition that cause more than optimal amount of disk I/O to be performed in accessing a table or cause the longer disk. Optimal performance of SELECT queries occurs when the data pages of tables are contiguous as possible and pages are fully packed as possible. Fragmentation breaks rule and reduce the performance of the queries. Fragmentation can happen in two level . One is file system level fragmentation which is called as Logical/Physical Disk Fragmentation and Index level fragmentation. Each of them are described in the below sections.

 

Question:- What are the criteria to be considered while selecting an index?

 

Answer:- The selecting an index can be Use index search selection criteria dialogue

 

Question:- How will you implement a tree structure (one employee reports to another who is an employee of the organization itself) in design? What are the challenges in managing this type of tables?

 

Answer:- Tree structures are very useful in implementing hierarchical structures which are helpful for software developers to develop applications which are more realistic and tangible to the customers who will use them.

 

Question:- What is a Heap Table and when will you make heap tables?

 

Answer:- If a table is a heap and does not have any nonclustered indexes, then the entire table must be examined (a table scan) to find any row. This can be acceptable when the table is tiny, such as a list of the 12 regional offices of a company. When a table is stored as a heap, individual rows are identified by reference to a row identifier (RID) consisting of the file number, data page number, and slot on the page. The row id is a small and efficient structure.

 

Question:- What is collation and how will you define a collation at column level?

 

Answer:- Collations can be specified at the server, database, column, expression, and identifier levels. When you install an instance of SQL Server, you specify the default server collation for that instance. Each time that you create a database, you can specify the default collation used for the database. If you do not specify a collation, the default collation for the database is the default collation for the server instance. Whenever you define a character column, variable, or parameter, you can specify the collation of the object. If you do not specify a collation, the object is created by using the default collation of the database.

 

Question:- What is the difference between an OLTP, ODS, Data Warehouse and a Data Mart? What has been your level of experience in designing these types of systems?

 

Answer:- OLTP- handles real time transactions which inherently have some special requirements.

ODS- its final integration point ETL process where we load the data in ODS before load the values in target.

 

Question:- Illustrate physical database architecture in brief.

 

Answer:- The physical database architecture describes how the database and files are organized in a SQL server.

Pages and extents: these describe how the data is stored

Physical Database Files and File groups :- describes the operating system files used to store data and logs.

Space Allocation and Reuse :- Describes the algorithms used for space allocation.

Table and Index Architecture :- Describes the way pages for tables can be indexed

 

Question:- What is RAIDs, explain RAID 5

 

Answer:- The combining physical drives and presenting them as a single hard drive to the operating system, RAID technology allows storage pros to store the same data in different places on multiple disks. For organisations considering a RAID deployment, there are multiple factors that need to be looked at, particularly the available levels of RAID technology and the specific needs of their data storage infrastructure.

 

Question:- What are the different isolation levels in SQL

 

Answer:- : Isolation levels come into play when you need to isolate a resource for a transaction and protect that resource from other transactions. The protection is done by obtaining locks. What locks need to be set and how it has to be established for the transaction is determined by SQL Server referring to the Isolation Level that has been set. Lower Isolation Levels allow multiple users to access the resource simultaneously (concurrency) but they may introduce concurrency related problems such as dirty-reads and data inaccuracy. Higher Isolation Levels eliminate concurrency related problems and increase the data accuracy but they may introduce blocking.

 

Question:- What is share lock?

Answer:- locking that allows different types of resources to be locked by a transaction. To minimize the cost of locking, SQL Server locks resources automatically at a level appropriate to the task. Locking at a smaller granularity, such as rows, increases concurrency, but has a higher overhead because more locks must be held if many rows are locked. Locking at a larger granularity, such as tables, are expensive in terms of concurrency because locking an entire table restricts access to any part of the table by other transactions, but has a lower overhead because fewer locks are being maintained.

 

 

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SQL Developers Questionnaries

Question:- What is your approach on designing a Database?

Answer:- First approach using life cycle and then ERD and create a prototype of your application and test the model.

Question:- What are the advantages and disadvantages of Normalization?

Answer:-Advantages: reduce the redundancy, conceptually cleaner, avoid null values and increase storage efficiency.

Disadvantages: complex query can put database down. Also too many joins required to produce reports.

Question:- When will you go for Normalization or De-normalization?

Answer:- It depends upon the condition at what level data base should be normalization and de-normalization.

Question:- Define third normal form and give an example of placing a model in third normal form.

Answer:- Define: No duplicate information is permitted. So, for example, if two tables both require a birthdate field, the birthdate information would be separated into a separate table, and the two other tables would then access the birthdate information via an index field in the birthdate table. Any change to a birthdate would automatically be reflecting in all tables that link to the birthdate table.

Question:- What are constraints in SQL Server?

Answer:- Unique key constrain, Primary key constrain, check constrain, foreign key constrain, not null constrain, default constrain.

Question:- What is SQL Profiler?

Answer:- SQL Server Profiler is a rich interface to create and manage traces and analyze and replay trace results. The events are saved in a trace file that can later be analyzed or used to replay a specific series of steps when trying to diagnose a problem. Creating trace, Watching trace, Storing trace, Replaying trace.

Question:- What is an execution plan?

Answer:- Execution plans can tell you how a query will be executed, or how a query was executed. They are, therefore, the DBA's primary means of troubleshooting a poorly performing query. Rather than guess at why a given query is performing thousands of scans, putting your I/O through the roof, you can use the execution plan to identify the exact piece of SQL code that is causing the problem. For example, it may be scanning an entire table-worth of data when, with the proper index, it could simply backpack out only the rows you need. All this and more is displayed in the execution plan.

Question:- What is use of EXCEPT clause? How it differs from NOT IN clause

Answer:-  EXCEPT clause is used to return records that are returned by the first query and NOT the second query. The number of fields and data types of both the queries should be the same. NOT In clause Consider this code that returns all the customers who don't have an order in the Orders table.

Question:- Explain the difference between RECOMPILE query hint and WITH RECOMPILE option.

Answer:- RECOMPILE query hint can be added to a stored procedure as query hint. This allows only that query in the stored procedure to recompile. WITH RECOMPILE option recompiles the whole stored procedure which might not be needed if the stored procedure has many queries and only some of them need to be recompiled.

Question:- What the difference is between and when to choose what:  char, varchar, nvarchar, text, varchar (max)?

Answer:- nchar and nvarchar can store Unicode character.char and varchar cannot store Unicode characters. char and nchar are fixed-length which will reserve storage space for number of characters you specify even if you don't use up all that space. varchar and nvarchar are variable-length which will only use up spaces for the characters you store.  It will not reserve storage like char or nchar.

Question:- What are “Table Scan’s” and “Index Scan’s”?

Answer:- A table scan is where the table is processed row by row from beginning to end. An index scan is where the index is processed row by row from beginning to end. If the index is a clustered index then an index scan is really a table scan.

Question:- What are indexes? What are types of indexes?

Answer:- : Index is a method used for faster retrieval of records different types of indexes are
1.primary key index
2.unique index
3.bitmap index
4.hash index
5.function based index
6. B-tree index on table.
7.Virtual index

Question:-What is nested join, hash join and merge join in SQL Query plan?

Answer:- In nested joins, for each tuple in the outer join relation, the system scans the entire inner-join relation and appends any tuples that match the join-condition to the result set.
Merge join: Merge join If both join relations come in order, sorted by the join attribute(s), the system can perform the join trivially, thus: It can consider the current group of tuples from the inner relation which consists of a set of contiguous tuples in the inner relation with the same value in the join attribute.
Hash join: A hash join algorithm can only produce equial-joins. The database system pre-forms access to the tables concerned by building hash tables on the join-attributes.

Question:- How do you see the SQL plan in textual format?

Answer:- SET SHOWPLAN_TEXT ON
To quickly analyze a slow-running query, examine the query execution plan to determine what is causing the problem.
SET SHOWPLAN_TEXT causes SQL Server to return detailed information about how the statements are executed.

Question:-Is it a good database design to create indexes on the table in which lot of inserts occurs?

Answer:- Indexes are created on columns in tables or views. The index provides a fast way to look up data based on the values within those columns. Without the index, a table scan would have to be performed in order to locate the row, which can have a significant effect on performance. Instead, I will focus on those indexes that are implemented most commonly in a SQL Server database.

Question:- What is “Fill Factor” concept in indexes? What is the best value for “FillFactor”?

Answer:- :  Fill factor is the value that determines the percentage of space on each leaf-level page to be filled with data. In an SQL Server, the smallest unit is a page, which is made of  Page with size 8K. Every page can store one or more rows based on the size of the row. The default value of the Fill Factor is 100, which is same as value 0. The default Fill Factor (100 or 0) will allow the SQL Server to fill the leaf-level pages of an index with the maximum numbers of the rows it can fit. There will be no or very little empty space left in the page, when the fill factor is 100.

Question:- Define “Index statistics”.

Answer:- : Index statistics contain information about the distribution of index key values. By distribution, I mean the number of rows associated with each key value. SQL Server uses this information to determine what kind of execution plan to use when processing a query. As you insert, update, or delete rows in a table, the statistics on the updated table become out of date. They become out of date because SQL Server doesn't update the statistics every time you change a row in a table.

Question:- How can we see statistics of an index?

Answer:- Once statistics have been created, SQL Server then determines when to update those statistics based on how out-of-date the statistics might be. SQL Server identifies out of date statistics based on the number of inserts, updates, and deletes that have occurred since the last time statistics were updated, and then recreates the statistics based on a threshold. The threshold is relative to the number of records in the table. This means as you add and update records in a database table the index statistics slowly get out of date, until SQL Server determines you have added and/or updated enough records and then it recreates the statistics.

Question:- Define Fragmentation. How can we measure Fragmentation?

Answer:- Fragmentation can be defined as any condition that cause more than optimal amount of disk I/O to be performed in accessing a table or cause the longer disk. Optimal performance of SELECT queries occurs when the data pages of tables are contiguous as possible and pages are fully packed as possible. Fragmentation breaks rule and reduce the performance of the queries. Fragmentation can happen in two level . One is file system level fragmentation which is called as Logical/Physical Disk Fragmentation and Index level fragmentation. Each of them are described in the below sections.

Question:- What are the criteria to be considered while selecting an index?

Answer:- The selecting an index can be Use index search selection criteria dialogue

Question:- How will you implement a tree structure (one employee reports to another who is an employee of the organization itself) in design? What are the challenges in managing this type of tables?

Answer:- Tree structures are very useful in implementing hierarchical structures which are helpful for software developers to develop applications which are more realistic and tangible to the customers who will use them.

Question:- What is a Heap Table and when will you make heap tables?

Answer:- If a table is a heap and does not have any nonclustered indexes, then the entire table must be examined (a table scan) to find any row. This can be acceptable when the table is tiny, such as a list of the 12 regional offices of a company. When a table is stored as a heap, individual rows are identified by reference to a row identifier (RID) consisting of the file number, data page number, and slot on the page. The row id is a small and efficient structure.

Question:- What is collation and how will you define a collation at column level?

Answer:- Collations can be specified at the server, database, column, expression, and identifier levels. When you install an instance of SQL Server, you specify the default server collation for that instance. Each time that you create a database, you can specify the default collation used for the database. If you do not specify a collation, the default collation for the database is the default collation for the server instance. Whenever you define a character column, variable, or parameter, you can specify the collation of the object. If you do not specify a collation, the object is created by using the default collation of the database.

Question:- What is the difference between an OLTP, ODS, Data Warehouse and a Data Mart?  What has   been your level of experience in designing these types of systems?

Answer:- OLTP- handles real time transactions which inherently have some special requirements.
ODS- its final integration point ETL process where we load the data in ODS before load the values in target.

Question:- Illustrate physical database architecture in brief.

Answer:- The physical database architecture describes how the database and files are organized in a SQL server.
Pages and extents: these describe how the data is stored
Physical Database Files and File groups :- describes the operating system files used to store data and logs.
Space Allocation and Reuse :- Describes the algorithms used for space allocation.
Table and Index Architecture :- Describes the way pages for tables can be indexed

Question:- What is RAIDs, explain RAID 5

Answer:- The combining physical drives and presenting them as a single hard drive to the operating system, RAID technology allows storage pros to store the same data in different places on multiple disks. For organisations considering a RAID deployment, there are multiple factors that need to be looked at, particularly the available levels of RAID technology and the specific needs of their data storage infrastructure.

Question:- What are the different isolation levels in SQL 

Answer:- :  Isolation levels come into play when you need to isolate a resource for a transaction and protect that resource from other transactions. The protection is done by obtaining locks. What locks need to be set and how it has to be established for the transaction is determined by SQL Server referring to the Isolation Level that has been set. Lower Isolation Levels allow multiple users to access the resource simultaneously (concurrency) but they may introduce concurrency related problems such as dirty-reads and data inaccuracy. Higher Isolation Levels eliminate concurrency related problems and increase the data accuracy but they may introduce blocking.

Question:- What is share lock?

Answer:- locking that allows different types of resources to be locked by a transaction. To minimize the cost of locking, SQL Server locks resources automatically at a level appropriate to the task. Locking at a smaller granularity, such as rows, increases concurrency, but has a higher overhead because more locks must be held if many rows are locked. Locking at a larger granularity, such as tables, are expensive in terms of concurrency because locking an entire table restricts access to any part of the table by other transactions, but has a lower overhead because fewer locks are being maintained.

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Thank You Radus Tek

I Just wanted to thank Radus Tek for providing me Professional & Quality Training and helping me with getting the role i had always dreamt of. Everyone at Radus Tek is very professional and helpful. Only in few weeks of me joining Radus Tek i got the job. Thank you once again.

Regards,

Ron

Sr Business Analyst

 

 

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Wish you Happy New Year 2013

Happy bNew Yearb Greeting Cards b2013b Advance happy bnew yearb wishes bb How To Free New Year Ecard 2013

Wish You A.. Great, Prosperous, Blissful, Healthy, Bright, Delightful, Mind Blowing, Energetic, Terrific & Extremely
Happy New Year 2013

 

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HAPPY MERRY CHRISTMAS

xmas lights gif

merry christmas cards

 

 

xmas lights

Christmas is a time when you get homesick – even when you’re home. ~Carol Nelson

He who has not Christmas in his heart will never find it under a tree. ~Roy L. Smith

Once again we find ourselves enmeshed in the Holiday Season, that very special time of year when we join with our loved ones in sharing centuries-old traditions such as trying to find a parking space at the mall. We traditionally do this in my family by driving around the parking lot until we see a shopper emerge from the mall, then we follow her, in very much the same spirit as the Three Wise Men, who 2,000 years ago followed a star, week after week, until it led them to a parking space. By Dave Barry.

The earth has grown old with its burden of care but at Christmas it always is young, The heart of the jewel burns lustrous and fair And its soul full of music breaks the air, When the song of angels is sung.” By Phillips Brooks.

Christmas waves a magic wand over this world, and behold, everything is softer and more beautiful. ~Norman Vincent Peale

O Christmas Sun! What holy task is thine! To fold a world in the embrace of God! ~Guy Wetmore Carryl

Somehow, not only for Christmas, but all the long year through, the joy that you give to others, is the joy that comes back to you. And the more you spend in blessing, the poor and lonely and sad, the more of your heart’s possessing, returns to you glad. By John Greenleaf Whittier.

Christmas is the season when you buy this year’s gifts with next year’s money ~Kurt Avish

I have always thought of Christmas time, when it has come round, as a good time; a kind, forgiving, charitable time; the only time I know of, in the long calendar of the year, when men and women seem by one consent to open their shut-up hearts freely, and to think of people below them as if they really were fellow passengers to the grave, and not another race of creatures bound on other journeys. By Charles Dickens.

Christmas is the gentlest, loveliest festival of the revolving year – and yet, for all that, when it speaks, its voice has strong authority. ~W.J. Cameron

Happy, happy Christmas, that can win us back to the delusions of our childish days; that can recall to the old man the pleasures of his youth; that can transport the sailor and the traveler, thousands of miles away, back to his own fire-side and his quiet home! By Charles Dickens.

Instead of being a time of unusual behavior, Christmas is perhaps the only time in the year when people can obey their natural impulses and express their true sentiments without feeling self-conscious and, perhaps, foolish. Christmas, in short, is about the only chance a man has to be himself. By Francis C. Farley.

The best of all gifts around any Christmas tree: the presence of a happy family all wrapped up in each other. ~Burton Hillis

Our hearts grow tender with childhood memories and love of kindred, and we are better throughout the year for having, in spirit, become a child again at Christmas-time. ~Laura Ingalls Wilder

May peace be your gift for this Christmas and the blessing of the Almighty be with you and the world to help us all make this world a better place. To make it a Christmas day everyday of the year. ~Kurt Avish

Christmas is forever, not for just one day, for loving, sharing, giving, are not to put away like bells and lights and tinsel, in some box upon a shelf. The good you do for others is good you do yourself. ~Norman Wesley Brooks

A Christmas candle is a lovely thing. It makes no noise at all. But softly gives itself away. ~Eva Logue

For the spirit of Christmas fulfils the greatest hunger of mankind. ~Loring A. Schuler

I wish we could put up some of the Christmas spirit in jars and open a jar of it every month. ~Harlan Miller

Sing hey! Sing hey!
For Christmas Day;
Twine mistletoe and holly.
For a friendship glows
In winter snows,
And so let’s all be jolly!

At Christmas play and make good cheer,
For Christmas comes but once a year
~Thomas Tusser

Christmas is for children. But it is for grown-ups too. Even if it is a headache, a chore, and nightmare, it is a period of necessary defrosting of chill and hide-bound hearts. ~Lenora Mattingly Weber

May the spirit of Christmas bring you peace,
The gladness of Christmas give you hope,
The warmth of Christmas grant you love.

I heard the bells on Christmas Day
Their old, familiar carols play,
And wild and sweet
The words repeat
Of peace on earth, good-will to men! ~Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

I love the Christmas-tide, and yet,
I notice this, each year I live;
I always like the gifts I get,
But how I love the gifts I give! ~Carolyn Wells

‘Tis blessed to bestow, and yet,
Could we bestow the gifts we get,
And keep the ones we give away,
How happy were our Christmas day! ~Carolyn Wells

Except the Christ be born again tonight
In dreams of all men, saints and sons of shame,
The world will never see his kingdom bright. ~Vachel Lindsay

The earth has grown old with its burden of care,
But at Christmas it always is young. ~Phillips Brooks

Let Christmas not become a thing
Merely of merchant’s trafficking,
Of tinsel, bell and holly wreath
And surface pleasure, but beneath
The childish glamour, let us find
Nourishment for soul and mind.
Let us follow kinder ways
Through our teeming human maze,
And help the age of peace to come
From a Dreamer’s martyrdom. ~Madeline Morse

Christmas – that magic blanket that wraps itself about us, that something so intangible that it is like a fragrance. It may weave a spell of nostalgia. Christmas may be a day of feasting, or of prayer, but always it will be a day of remembrance – a day in which we think of everything we have ever loved. ~Augusta E. Rundel

Let us remember that the Christmas heart is a giving heart, a wide open heart that thinks of others first. The birth of the baby Jesus stands as the most significant event in all history, because it has meant the pouring into a sick world of the healing medicine of love which has transformed all manner of hearts for almost two thousand years. Underneath all the bulging bundles is this beating Christmas heart. By George Mathhew Adams.

The joy of brightening other lives, bearing each others’ burdens, easing other’s loads and supplanting empty hearts and lives with generous gifts becomes for us the magic of Christmas.” By W. C. Jones.

Christmas! The very word brings joy to our hearts. No matter how we may dread the rush, the long Christmas lists for gifts and cards to be bought and given–when Christmas Day comes there is still the same warm feeling we had as children, the same warmth that enfolds our hearts and our homes.” By Joan Winmill Brown.

Never worry about the size of your Christmas tree. In the eyes of children, they are all 30 feet tall. ~Larry Wilde, The Merry Book of Christmas

 

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I’m a software developer, why is this business analyst on my project?

In a lot of people's minds, the primary role of the business analyst is to translate the requirements of the business application into something a developer can understand and explain to the business what the developer is trying to say.

Naturally, this translation process can lead to a lot of confusion, which is one of the reasons a lot people think being a business analyst is a thankless job. In fact, frustration with business analysts is running so high that companies that make application development tools have been telling developers that they now have modeling tools that essentially eliminate the need for the business analyst. In this scenario, a developer can sit down with business executives directly to model the application and automate a lot of the underlying code development.

The tension between business analysts and developers goes back to the beginning of the computing age. It will be interesting to see as developers become more business savvy, how many of them will want to engage directly with the ultimate user of their applications. At the same time, it will also be interesting to see how far a business analyst can go without the aid of a developer.

All of this got me thinking about the BA reputation with software developers and how they might improve it. Although Business Analysts love to think (or expect) that software developers care about the bottom line of the organization, it’s natural for every person, regardless of how noble and unselfish, to look at things from the perspective of, “What’s in it for me?”Or, to put it another way: What exactly is in it for a software developer working with a BA?

Have you faced similar challenges within your own IT organization?Or someone who agrees with the point that it is really up to the BA’s to show the developers what they bring to the table......

This is an open forum and I would like all of you to share your thoughts and begin a trail of discussion!!


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